အဓမ္မ ပြုကျင့်မှုများဆိုင်ရာ အခြေခံဗသုသုတ

Basic Knowledge of Abuses

ed’gef;

t"rRðyusifhcH&jcif;a=umifh [email protected]&;ရှုံ;&onf? t"rRðyusifhcH&onfudk rnfolr# rESpfoufyg? ta=umif;rSm rdrd. pdwfqENt&r[kwfyJ ([email protected]) w&m;enf;vrf;rusyJ ([email protected]) Oya’ESifhrudkufnDyJ epfemqHk;&H_;& aoma=umifh jzpfonf?

epfemqHk;&H_;r_rsm;rSm udk,ft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm; xdcdkufysufqD;r_vnf; jzpfEdkifonf? pdwfydkif; qdkif&m xdcdkufysufpD;r_vnf;jzpfEdkifonf? xdkr#omru ydkifqdkifaomypPnf;OpPm/ *k%foduQm/ vGwfvyfr_ESifh wuG arG;&myg ydkifqdkifxdkufonfh [email protected]&;rsm;vnf; xdcdkufysufjym; epfemqHk;&–H;apEdkifonf? t"rRðyusifhcH&olrsm;wGif ouf&Sdvlom;rsm;omru wd&dp>mefrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf? ,kwfpGtqHk; aoqHk;+yD; olrsm;txdyif t"rRðyusifhcH&jcif;ESifh t=uHK;0ifonfqdkv#if ,ckacwfwGif tHhtm;oifhp&mr&Sdyg? Oyrm aoolwOD;tm; *k%foduQm!dk;EGrf;atmif vkyfjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf?

tjcm;olwOD;tm; xdcdkufysufpD; epfemqHk;&–H;apjcif;udk t"rRðyusifhr_rsm;[k ðcHiHkI azmfjy aomfvnf; trSefpifppf trsKd;tpm; rsm;jym;pGm&Sdonf? vlr_a&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;tjyif ppfa&; (Oyrm- tjcm; [email protected] ppfa&;jzifh usL;ausmf0ifa&mufjcif;)/ pD;yGm;a&;/ bmoma&;/ EdkifiHa&; ponfhu¾rsm;wGifvnf; tiftm;omolu t"rRðyusifhwwf=uonf? a,bl,s ðcHIqdkv#if ukvor*~. tjynfjynfqdkif&m [email protected] ta&;a=unmpmwrf;Yyg&Sdaom [email protected]&; csKd;azmufr_rsm;rSm t"rRðyusifhr_rsm; jzpfonf? t"rRðyusifhyHk tay:rlwnfI a0g[m& trsKd;rsKd;&Sdonf? toHk;rsm;aom a0g[m&rsm;udk azmfjyvdkufygonf? 

 

owfjzwfjcif;

tay:pD;rSqufqHjcif;/

tvdkrwlyJ udk;uG,fcdkif;jcif;

rk’def;usifhjcif;

wifpD;jcif;

tvdkrwlyJ 0wfqifcdkif;jcif;

AvuUm& ðyjcif;/

EdkifhxufpD;eif;vkyfjcif;

tvdkrwlyJ aoG;aqmifjcif;

om;r,m; ðyjcif;/

tEdkifusifhAdkvfusjcif;/

tvdkrwlyJ aygif;oif;cdkif;jcif;

&dkufESufjcif;/

apmfum;armfum;vkyfjcif;/

vdifpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif toHk;csjcif;

ESdyfpufuvl ðyjcif;/

csKyfaESmifjcif;/

oufrJhowW0gtjzpf oabmxm;I udkf,fusKd;&Smjcif;/

!‡if;qJjcif;/

qJa&;wdkif;xGmjcif;/

tcGifhaumif;,l udk,fusKd;&Smjcif;/

+cdrf;ajcmufjcif;/

aESmifh,Sufjcif;/

oGm;ykyfavvGifhajymqdkjcif;

=udrf;armif;jcif;/

um,dajENysufapjcif;/

t&SufwuGJ tusKd;enf;jzpfapjcif;

ESdyfuGyfjcif;/

udkf,fxdvufa&mufðyrljcif;/

pdwf"gwfajcmufjcm; ysufjym;apjcif;/

zdESdyfjcif;/

cdkif;apjcif;/

tiftm;([email protected]) tm%mjy awmif;qkd odrf;ydkufjcif;

csKd;ESdrfjcif;/

u|efjzpfapjcif;/

t"rR ppfr_xrf;aqmifapjcif;

*k%foduQmcsjcif;

ay:wmqGJjcif;

&efoludkckcH&mwGif vlom;’dkif;umtjzpf toHk;csjcif;

pGyfpGJjcif;

twif;tzsOf;ajymjcif;

pnf;rsOf;-Oya’[email protected] emcHcdkif;jcif;

t&SufcGJjcif;

aumv[vv$ifhxkwfjcif;

pnf;rsOf;-Oya’ESifhrnDnGwfyJ zrf;qD; xdef;odrf; ppfaq;jcif;

t"rR ðyusifhcH&onfh vlwOD;wa,mufonf rnfonfhudpPrsm;Y epfemqHk;&H_;&onfudk atmufygtwdkif; trsKd;tpm; cGJxm;Edkifonf?

1/      pdwfydkif;qdkif&m

2/      cE<mudk,fydkif;qdkif&m

3/      vdifydkif;qdkif&m

4/      um,dajENydkif;qdkif&m

5/      *k%foduQmydkif;qdkif&m

6/      vGwfvyfcGifhydkif;qdkif&m

7/      ydkifqdkifr_ydkif;qdkif&m (Oyrm- pD;yGm;a&;&ydkifcGifh/ tarGqufcHydkifcGifh)

8/      ynma&;ESifh wdk;[email protected]òz;r_qdkif&m

9/      bmoma&;qdkif&m

10/  ,Ofaus;r_ESifh "avhxHk;pH tpOftvmrsm;qdkif&m

11/  w&m;pD&ifa&;ydkif;qdkif&m

12/  EdkifiHa&;ydkif;qdkif&m (Oyrm- EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;/ rJay;ydkifcGifh/ a&G;aumufyGJ ,SOfðydifcGifh) [email protected]?

t"rRðyusifholudk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh tAsK;Zm (Abuser)[k ac:onf? ay:wl*Dbmom jzifh Abusador [k‚if;/ *smrefbmomjzifh Missbraucher [k‚if; ac:qdkoHk;pGJonf?

 

t"rRðyusifhol. usL;vGefwwfonfh p&dkuftavhtx (4)rsKd; &Sdonf?

1/       wdkuf&dkuf usL;vGefjcif;

2/       vla&[email protected]&[email protected] usL;vGefjcif;

3/       udk,fwdkifusL;vGefonfh[efrjyyJ usL;vGefjcif;

4/       ykef;v#Kd;uG,fv#Kd; usL;vGefjcif; [email protected]?

 

t"rR usL;vGefwwfonfh ykHo¿mef (4)rsKd; &Sdonf?

(u) t=urf;zufjcif;/

(c)   jcdrf;ajcmuf aoG;aqmifjcif;/

(*)   tm%mjyjcif;/

(C)  !‡if;yef;ESdyfpufjcif; [email protected]?

 

(u) t=urf;zufjcif; (Violence)

 

wzufom;udk xdcdkufemusif ([email protected]) aoapvdkaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh =urf;wrf;pGm twif; t"rRðyrljcif;jzpfonf? t=urff;zufcH&onfrSm vlomruyg? wd&dp>mefrsm;udk t=urf;zuf &ufpuf !‡if;yrf; jcif;ESifhvnf; oufqdkifonf? oufrJh&kyf0wˆKrsm;jzpfaom tdrf/ v,f,majr tp&[email protected] zsufqD;jcif; vnf;t=uHK;0ifonf? [email protected]=urf;zufjcif;udk &mZ0wfr_tjzpf owfrSwfxm;&onf? zsufvdkzsufpD; tðy trlrsm; yg&Sdaoma=umifh jzpfonf?

t=urf;zufyHkESpfrsKd;&Sdonf? yxrtrsKd;tpm;rSm =uHKovdkzsufqD;oGm;jcif;jzpfonf? óuwif jyifqifpdwful;xm;jcif;r&SdyJ zsufqD;jcif; jzpfonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh ysufpD;r_yrm% ao;i,fonf? ‘kwd, trsKd;tpm;rSm óuwifjyifqif pdwful;qHk;jzwf+yD; pepfwus tiftm;pkpnf;um t=urf;zufjcif; jzpfonf? Oyrm- ppfyGJ/ vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;/ t=urf;zuf zsufqD;jcif; (Terrorism)[email protected]? 

(c)   jcdrf;ajcmuf aoG;aqmifjcif; (Coercion)

tm%mjy jcdrf;ajcmuf+yD; ([email protected]) tiftm;oHk;+yD; ([email protected]) zdtm;ay;+yD; tjcm;olwOD;.tvdk qENrygyJ twif;t"rR vkyfaqmifcdkif;jcif; jzpfonf? rjzpfjzpfatmif vkyfaqmifcdkif;aoma=umifh cH&ol. pdwfydkif;qdkif&m ([email protected]) &kyfydkif;qdkif&m ([email protected]) ESpfckpvHk;udk trSefwu,fyif xdcdkufemusif ysufpD;qHk;&–H;apEdkifonf? cH&olrSm aemufxyf xdcdkufemusif ysufpD;qHk;&–H;&rnfh’%fudk cHEdkif&nfr&Sdawmhaomtcg vkyfaqmifcdkif;or# oabmwl vdkufavsm tvdkwlay;vdkuf&awmhonf?

   jcdrf;ajcmuf aoG;aqmifjcif;onf rddrdtvdkqEN &ruftwGuf [email protected] qENr&Sdonfh tjcm;oludk twif;t=uyf vkyfaqmifapjcif;jzpfonf? cH&oltm; xdcdkufepfemapaoma=umifh tqdkyg ðyrlyHkonf [email protected]@usifonf? rnfonfhEdkifiHom;/ rnfonfh,Ofaus;r_ "avhp&dkuf &Sdonfjzpfap acwfopfvlom;[email protected] [email protected]? 

wcgw&HwGif  jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifolonf wckckudk ,kwdW&Sd&Sd ta=umif;jy+yD; tjcm;oludk apm’uwufum rjzpfrae vkyfaqmifcdkif;wwfonf? &kyfydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmif wwfyHkudk azmfjyygrnf?

 

  • &kyfydkif;qdkif&m jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifjcif;

 

tjzpfwwfqHk; yHkpHjzpfonf? Oyrm-aoewfjyI([email protected]) "g;udkifI rvdkufemv#ifowfypfrnf [k jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifum t=uyfudkifjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf? t"du&k%f;&Jrsm;u vlxk csDwufqENjyyGJrsm;wGif ypfcwfrnf[kjcdrf;ajcmuf+yD; vlpkcGJcdkif;jcif;/ zrf;qD;jcif;rsKd;jzpfonf? avmavmq,fY tiftm;jyo oHk;pGJjcif; r&SdyJ jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifjcif;vnf; &Sdonf? Oyrm- [email protected] rvdkufemv#if zrf;qD;ta&;,lrnf qdkaom jcdrf;ajcmufr_jzpfonf?

 

  • pdwfydkif;qdkif&m jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifjcif;

pdwfydkif;qdkif&m jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifcH&onfhtcg cH&olonf [email protected];usif todkif; t0dkif;u [email protected]: [email protected],lqoGm;rnfenf;[k awG;ylae&awmhonf? txif&Sm;qHk; vkyf&yfwckrSm aiG!‡pfjcif;jzpfonf? wckckudkawmif;qdkIr&v#if v#[email protected][k jcdrf;ajcmufjcif;(Blackmail) jzpfonf?

tpdk;&u vkyfwwfonfrsm;vnf; &Sdonf? Oyrm- 1951-52 tawG;tac: ðyjyifajymif;vJ a&;umvwGif w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDu wuUodkvfESifh tusOf;axmifrsm;wGif rmhcfpf-vDeif0g’. oabm w&m;rsm;udk twif;t=uyf &dkufoGif;ay;cJhonf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGifvnf; tm%m&Sif OD;ae0if;u xdktwdkif; yHkwlul;cszl;onf? ‚. udk,fydkiftm%m&Sifvrf;pOfudk jynfolvlxku axmufcHtm;ay;&eftwGuf jrefrmh enf; jrefrmh[efjzifh wnfaqmufaeaom qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf[k emrnfay;onf? [email protected] EdkifiHa&;ody`H[k acgif;pOfwyf+yD; wuUodkvfaumvdyfrsm;wGif roifrae& avhvmaponf? avhvmol tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm OD;ae0if;u  jcdrf;ajcmuf aoG;aqmifaeonfudk r&dyfpm;rd=uyJ tppftrSefr[kwfaom EdkifiHa&;ody`Hudk oif,l aecJh&zl;onf?

,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxHk;pHudk ypfy,fI rjzpfrae jcdrf;ajcmufaoG;aqmifjcif; (Cultural Coercion)vnf; &Sdonf? Oyrm- *dk%f;[email protected]=uolrsm; (Peers Group)rSm *dk%f;rS owfrSwfxm;onfhtwdkif; 0wfpm;qif,if&jcif; ([email protected]) aq;rifa=umifxdk;&jcif;rsKd; jzpfonf?

     

(*) tm%m tvGJoHk;pm;jcif; (Abuse of Power)

EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk EdkifiHom;[email protected];pD;yGm;twGufr[kwfyJ wOD;[email protected],fusKd;twGuf toHk;csjcif;jzpfonf? [email protected];pOfwav#mufvHk; EdkifiHa&;tm%m tvGJoHk;pm;vkyfcJhzl;onfh om"ursm;pGm &Sdonf? tjzpfwwfqHk;rSm tm%monf vlenf;pktpdk;& vufxJwGifom&Sd+yD; trsm;pku EdkifiHa&;t& a0zef aqG;aEG; qHk;jzwfjyifqifcGifh r&yJ&Sdaeonf? erlemjy&rnfhtrsKd;tpm;rSm tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;u wif;=uyfpGm csKyfudkifxm;aom EdkifiHa&;tm%m jzpfonf? ‘Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGifvnf; tvm;wl jzpfwwfonf? 

tm%mtvGJoHk;pm;r_&Sdygu wm0ef&[email protected] zrf;qD;I jypf’%fay;avh&Sd=uonf? ,if;rSm EdkifiHwEdkifiHtaejzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;tydkif;rsm;rS aqmif&Gufae=ujcif;jzpfonf? rD;avmifjcif;udk óuwifwm;qD;[email protected] tm%mtvGJoHk;pm; vkyfvmEdkifonfrsm;udk rjzpfrDuyif óuwif[[email protected]; xdef;csKyf Edkif&ef Oya’a&;&mtydkif;rS taxmuftulay;&onf? 

jynfolvlxku axmufcH twnfðy&rnfh [email protected];yHktajccHOya’w&yfudk [email protected] xda&mufpGm usifhoHk;Edkifygu tm%mtvGJoHk;pm;r_udk t"dutusqHk; ajz&Sif;Edkifonf? t=urf;zsOf; azmfjy &v#if  

1/       tajccHOya’. Oya’ðya&;tm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mudk oD;jcm; vGwfvyfpGm wnf&Sdap+yD; tjyeftvSef xdef;csKyf tusKd;ðyEdkif&ygrnf? (Check and Balance)

2/       w&m;Oya’ (Rule of law) trSefwu,f pdk;rdk;Edkif&rnf?

3/       owif;rD’D,m vGwfvyfcGifh&Sdae&rnf?

4/       [email protected]&;rsm;udk tcdkiftrm zefwD;xm;Edkif&rnf? 

 

 

(C) ESdyfpuf !‡if;yef;jcif; (Persecution) 

 

tjcm;vlwOD;tm; xdkol. vlrsKd;pk/ bmoma&; ([email protected]) EdkifiHa&;,Hk=unfcsuf ([email protected]) vlr_a&; t& taESmifht,Sufay;vdkaom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh tcsdefumvwcktwGif; zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;&mrS jyefvnf v$wfay;jcif;r&SdyJ &ufpufpGm rw&m;ðyusifhjcif; jzpfonf? xdkyHkpHtwdkif; vlwpkrS tjcm;vlwpkudk ðyrljcif; vnf;&Sdonf? vlr_a&;t& aESmifh,Sufcsifonfh ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;jcif; trsKd;tpm;rSm Oyrmtm;jzifh b,foefol wOD;tm; xdkol ðyrlv_yf&Sm;&ef cufcJrnfhtaetxm;rsm;jzifh t"rR vkyfaqmifcdkif;jcif;jzpfonf?

tjzpfwwfqHk;rSm trsm;pku tenf;pkudk ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;jcif;jzpfaomfvnf; tm%mESifh vufeuf tp&Sdaom tiftm;omonfh vlenf;pku tm%mrJhaom/ vufeufrJhaom/ tiftm;enf;yg;aom vltrsm;pkudk ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;jcif;rsKd;vnf; &Sdonf? awmiftmz&durS tom;a&mif cGJjcm;onfh tm%m&Sif tpdk;&rSm vlenf;pkjzpfaomfvnf; tpdk;&tm%mjzifh [email protected] ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;cJhzl;onf?

 ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;olonf ol.vkyfaqmifcsufudk rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k xifjrif,lqavhr&Sdyg? cHae&oltay: udk,fcsif;pmpdwfvnf; r&Sdyg?  ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;jcif;jzifh [email protected] tusKd;tjrwf xGufvmonf udk w&m;onf[k tvGeftu|H vJGrSm;pGm cH,laewwfonf? ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;cH&oludk,fwdkif ([email protected]) ab;ywf 0ef;usifESifh w&m;a&;&_axmifhuom xdktðytrludk ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;jcif;jzpfonf[k owfrSwf=uonf?

ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;aepOftwGif; jypfwif&–[email protected]/ &dkif;ysaom pum;toHk;tE_ef;[email protected] csKd;ESdrf wwf=uonf? vlrsKd;pkrwlv#if vlpOfrrD/ tawG;tac: [email protected]òz;ao; pojzifh  ESdrfypfvdkufonf? bmomrwl v#if ta&mr0ifoifhonfhbmomjcm;/ bmomw&m;r&Sdol pojzifhcGJjcm;onf? EdkifiHa&;vkyfolqdkv#if tzsuf tarSmifhvkyfonf[k pGyfpGJonf? vdifwlqufqHolrsm;/ rl;,pfaq;oHk;olrsm;tm; pm&dwWysufpD;onf[k txif ao;=uonf? trSefpifppf cH&ol.obm0udk aumif;pGm qef;ppfjcif;r&SdyJ +yD;pvG,f ypfypfcgcg jypfwif&–[email protected] vdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf? Ttðytrlonf wzufom;tm; pdwfydkif;qdkif&m ESdyfpuf!‡if;yef;r_ jzpfonfomru &kyfydkif;qdkif&m wdk;[email protected]òz;r_udkvnf; tenf;ESifhtrsm; xdcdkufaponf? 

 

t"rRðyusifhr_rsm;udk xdef;csKyfwm;qD;jcif;ESifh [email protected]&;rsm;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif;

 

t"rRðyusifhr_rsm;udk xdef;csKyfwm;qD;ay;EdkifonfrSm t"dutm;jzifh [email protected]&; av;pm; r_udk azmfxkwfay;onfh ppfrSefaom tajccHOya’ jzpfonf? xdktajccHOya’twdkif; twdtus vdkufem xdef;odrf;ay;Edkif&efESifh tusKd;ðyvkyfief;rsm; tm;ay;Edkif&ef tpdk;&ESifhwuG EdkifiHa&;wGif yg0ifvkyfaqmifolrsm; wOD;csif;jzpfap/ toif;[email protected] EdkifiHa&;ygwDjzpfap tm;vHk;wGif wm0ef&Sdonf?

vlxkbufrSvnf; vlxkynmay;a&; vkyfief;rsm;udk wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzifh tus,[email protected] qHk;jzpfatmif oufqdkif&mtm%[email protected] [email protected] vufwGJvkyfaqmifEdkifrS xda&mufpGm tusKd;&Sd rnfjzpfonf? [email protected]&Hkjzifh wm0efausEdkifonf qdkaomfvnf; tusifhysuf Oya’0efxrf;rsm;ESifhwuG  udk,fusKd;&Sm tm%[email protected];rsm;&Sdaeoa&[email protected] tdwfaygufESifh zm;[email protected] jzpfaeayvdrfhrnf?  wcsdefwnf;rSmyif owif;rD’D,m vGwfvyfcGifhESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;r¾[email protected] umuG,fxm;Edkif& ygrnf?

a&&SnfwGif xda&mufEdkfifvmEdkifrnfh enf;vrf;rSm uav;oli,frsm; ausmif;paeonfhtcsdef rSpI txufwef;ausmif;rsm;txd [email protected]&;ESifh t"rRRðyusifhr_rsm;ta=umif;udk em;vnfEdkifonfh tqifhtvdkuf ausmif;wGif;ynmay;a&;jzifh tav;teufxm; vkyfaqmifjcif;jzpfonf? wdkif;jynfwck. ynma&; rl0g’onf [email protected] jynfolw&yfvHk; tusKd;&Sd&Sd cHpm;Edkifaprnhf rl0g’om jzpfap&rnf? xdkrS vGJI tjcm;&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfay;jcif;rsKd; rjzpfoihfyg? 

tar&duefESihf [email protected] ‘Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGif uav;rsm; ausmif;pwufonf rSpI ‘Drdkua&pDusifhpOfrsm;udk [email protected];ESifhol oif=um;ay;onfrSm t&G,fa&mufonftxd jzpfonf? Tenf;jzifh ‘Drkdua&pDudk tajccHrSpI [email protected] xdef;odrf;oGm;Edkifvsuf&Sdonf? ‘Drdkua&pD cdkifjrJaeor# [email protected]&;udk av;pm;vdkufemr_rsm; xGef;um;aernfjzpf+yD; wcsdefwnf;rSmyif t"rRðyusifhr_rsm;udkvnf; rjzpfrDuyif óuwifwm;qD;Edkifaernfjzpfonf?

 

qufvufazmfjyygrnf?

vGifatmifpdk;

 

——————————————–

 

 

 

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